The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision. Thus all persons practice philosophy whether they know it or not. Autocosmic Answers What is existing?
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter.
Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it.
Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.
Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.
If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population. Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited -- unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment.
The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches for example, Darwin's finches. The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals.
A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale. Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics. A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable.
An umbrella term for various simple organisms that contain chlorophyll and can therefore carry out photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats and in moist situations on land. The term has no direct taxonomic significance. Algae range from macroscopic seaweeds such as giant kelp, which frequently exceeds 30 m in length, to microscopic filamentous and single-celled forms such as Spirogyra and Chlorella.
One of the alternative forms of a gene. For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds. In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene one from each parent.
Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence. The relation between the size of an organism and the size of any of its parts.
For example, an allometric relation exists between brain size and body size, such that in this case animals with bigger bodies tend to have bigger brains.
Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species. Speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a species are geographically isolated from one another sufficiently that they do not interbreed.
Living in separate places. The unit molecular building block of proteinswhich are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence. There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence.
A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteinsusually coded for by DNA. Extinct relatives of cephalopods squid, octopi, and chambered nautilusesthese mollusks had coiled shells and are found in the fossil record of the Cretaceous period. The group of reptiles, birds, and mammals.
These all develop through an embryo that is enclosed within a membrane called an amnion. The amnion surrounds the embryo with a watery substance, and is probably an adaptation for breeding on land.Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Artificial intelligence has close connections with philosophy because both share several concepts and these include intelligence, action, consciousness, epistemology, and even free will. Furthermore, the technology is concerned with the creation of artificial animals or artificial people (or, at least, artificial creatures) so the discipline is of considerable interest to philosophers.
And everything we just mentioned is still only taking in stagnant information and processing it. To be human-level intelligent, a computer would have to understand things like the difference between subtle facial expressions, the distinction between being pleased, relieved, content, satisfied, and glad, and why Braveheart was great but The Patriot was terrible.
Artificial Intelligence - Strong and Weak Written by Alex Armstrong Monday, 04 May Weak v Strong AI. Human players even claim that they can tell the difference between a real human player and a machine even if this is sometime phrased as being down to a strange personality.
What artificial intelligence is. 1. Introduction. “Artificial Intelligence,” from now on AI (Artificial Intelligence), is the set of studies and techniques aiming at the production of machines, electronic calculators in particular, capable of solving problems and reproducing activities proper to human intelligence.
What is Transhumanism? nationwidesecretarial.com Transhumanism is a way of thinking about the future that is based on the premise that the human species in its current form does not represent the end of our development but rather a comparatively early phase..
Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades.