Term paper on pregnancy

During the first trimesteryou will usually have the option of having a medical abortion procedure or a surgical abortion procedure. Before considering the options, it is recommended that you obtain a sonogram to determine if the pregnancy is viable uterine, non-ectopic pregnancy and for accurate pregnancy dating. Need to Talk About Your Options? For information about abortion you may call the APA toll-free helpline ator search locally by zip code below.

Term paper on pregnancy

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Doppler Ultrasound The doppler shift principle has been used for a long time Term paper on pregnancy fetal heart rate detectors. Further developments in doppler ultrasound technology in recent years have enabled a great expansion in its application in Obstetrics, particularly in the area of assessing and monitoring the well-being of the fetus, its progression in the face of intrauterine growth restriction, and the diagnosis of cardiac malformations.

Doppler ultrasound is presently most widely employed in the detection of fetal cardiac pulsations and pulsations in the various fetal blood vessels.

Term paper on pregnancy

The "Doptone" fetal pulse detector is a commonly used handheld device to detect fetal heartbeat using the same doppler principle. Blood flow characteristics in the fetal blood vessels can be assessed with Doppler 'flow velocity waveforms'.

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Diminished flow, particularly in the diastolic phase of a pulse cycle is associated with compromise in the fetus. Various ratios of the systolic to diastolic flow are used as a measure of this compromise. The blood vessels commonly interrogated include the umbilical arterythe aortathe middle cerebral arteriesthe uterine arcuate arteriesand the inferior vena cava.

The use of color flow mapping can clearly depict the flow of blood in fetal blood vessels in a realtime scan, the direction of the flow being represented by different colors.

Color doppler is particularly indispensible in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac and blood vessel defectsand in the assessment of the hemodynamic responses to fetal hypoxia and anemia. A more recent development is the Power Doppler Doppler angiography. It uses amplitude information from doppler signals rather than flow velocity information to visualize slow flow in smaller blood vessels.

A color perfusion-like display of a particular organ such as the placenta overlapping on the 2-D image can be very nicely depicted. Doppler examinations can be performed abdominally and via the transvaginal route. The power emitted by a doppler device is greater than that used in a conventional 2-D scan.

Its use in early pregnancy is therefore cautioned. Doppler facilities are generally an integral part of modern ultrasound scanners. They merely would need to be switched on to function.

One does not need to 'go' to another machine for the doppler investigations. The transducer takes a series of images, thin slices, of the subject, and the computer processes these images and presents them as a 3 dimensional image.

Obstetric ultrasound -- a comprehensive guide to ultrasound scans in pregnancy

Using computer controls, the operator can obtain views that might not be available using ordinary 2-D ultrasound scan. It too, is very much in the News. Faster and more advanced commercial models are coming into the market.

The scans requires special probes and software to accumulate and render the imagesand the rendering time has been reduced from minutes to fractions of a seconds. A good 3-D image is often very impressive to the parents. Further 2-D scans may be extracted from 3-D blocks of scanned information.

Volumetric measurements are more accurate and both doctors and parents can better appreciate a certain abnormality or the absence of a certain abnormality in a 3-D scan than a 2-D one and there is the possibility of increasing psychological bonding between the parents and the baby.

Term paper on pregnancy

An increasing volume of literature is accumulating on the usefulness of 3-D scans and the diagnosis of congenital anomalies could receive revived attention.

Other more subtle features such as low-set ears, facial dysmorphia or clubbing of feet can be better assessed, leading to more effective diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.

The study of fetal cardiac malformations is also receiving attention. The ability to obtain a good 3-D picture is nevertheless still very much dependent on operator skill, the amount of liquor amniotic fluid around the fetus, its position and the degree of maternal obesity, so that a good image is not always readily obtainable.Teenage pregnancy significantly impacts an adolescent’s education, as well as the goals they have set for themselves.

Parental involvement is sometimes overlooked by the teen while deciding if abortion is the right choice. Teen pregnancy and resulting births pose many societal challenges, and as a result require the collective efforts of many to provide solutions.

Teen pregnancy has been considered a "social ill. Teenage Pregnancy in America Teen pregnancy is a growing epidemic in the United States. Teen girls are becoming pregnant at an alarming rate, with a lot of the pregnancies planned. 1 Retinol or retinyl esters 2 See Food and Nutrition Board: National Academy of Sciences, ' 3 Kamm, '82; Kamm et al, ' 4 Rosa et al., ' At least seven case reports of adverse pregnancy outcome associated with a daily intake of vitamin A of 25, IU or more have been published (Rosa et al., '86).

Quality. The most important consideration that one should take when using an essential oil is the quality. One must research the company producing oils to make sure . Pregnancy is considered at full term when gestation has lasted 39 to 41 weeks. After 41 weeks, it is known as late term and after 42 weeks post term.

[4] Babies born before 39 weeks are considered early term while those before 37 weeks are preterm. [4].

Abortion Procedures During First, Second and Third Trimester