Instead, we need a civic solution, because democracy is at risk. InThe Public Interest, then a leading venue for highbrow policy debate, published a provocative essay by Paul Baran, one of the fathers of the data transmission method known as packet switching. We could check to see whether the local department store has the advertised sports shirt in stock in the desired color and size. We could ask when delivery would be guaranteed, if we ordered.
Stephen Toby One of the prevailing myths of the modern fleet is that the US Navy's nuclear-powered aircraft carriers are capable of extraordinary maximum speeds. As is quite common with Urban Myths, these keep growing with each retelling of the basic story.
It started with speeds of "over 40 knots" being alleged. This has risen by stages to 45 knots then to its current level of 50 knots. The story invariably ends with an officer turning off the speed readout for "security reasons.
The official listing of the carrier speeds is "in excess of 30 knots". The actual speed of the CVNs is classified; much as the maximum speed of the SSNs in the s through s was restricted information. The JFK was designed for All had powertrain installations designed to provideshp except Forrestal which hadshp.
In all cases, the power was delivered via four shafts. To determine this we have to look at the power train itself. The nuclear powerplant does not drive the ship directly; it generates steam which powers turbines which drive the screws.
The power rating of the ship is the output of her turbines, not the steam generating capacity of the reactor.
The turbines installed on the CVNs are identical to those on the CVs; they generateshp over four shafts. Even if the nuclear reactor component did generate huge amounts of additional steam, there would be nowhere to put it. Unofficial figures for the Enterprise confirm this; they suggest the ship was designed for It has been suggested that this figure was "leaked" in order to counter suggestions that she was worn out.
In passing, although Enterprise has an eight-reactor power train, only six of the reactors are on line at any one time the reactors being rotated so that all are used regularly.
The reason is quite simple; after recoring, only six reactors are needed to provide all the steam the turbines can handle. This is not correct. All eight reactors are continually on-line. The Navy originally published a note saying that only six were on line at any one time, but later corrected it.
In fact, they have now all been recored and are rated at the sameshp as the other carriers.
It might be expected that they would, therefore, have speeds in the same 33 knot range as the other carriers. In fact, this is not correct. The dimensions of the Nimitz class were set by building dock and other industrial and infrastructure considerations.
Their hull is the largest practical design without massive investment in base and construction infrastructure. This placed grave pressure on internal volume and forced the adoption of some unusual designs solutions and the use of a significantly fuller hull form.
This translated directly into loss of speed. Although the official figures are classified, it is unofficially reported that the design speed of the Nimitz was This would fit the reduced power and less advantageous hull form. Quite independently, the US Navy has suggested that the "Nimitz Class" have achieved trials speeds of Later ships of the Nimitz class are substantially larger than the earlier members but do have the uprated,shp plants.
Its unlikely that the extra power fully compensates for the extra size and it has been rumored that the latest ship, CVN USS Harry S Truman, was hard put to reach It is an era of science and technology.
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One of the prevailing myths of the modern fleet is that the US Navy's nuclear-powered aircraft carriers are capable of extraordinary maximum speeds.