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Etymology[ edit ] Propaganda is a modern Latin word, the gerundive form of propagare, meaning to spread or to propagate, thus propaganda means that which is to be propagated. History of propaganda Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists.
The Behistun Inscription c. Propaganda during the Reformationhelped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, and in particular within Germany, caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century.
During the era of the American Revolutionthe American colonies had a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in the topic on behalf of the Patriots and to a lesser extent on behalf of the Loyalists. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat.
Adolf Hitler came to echo this view, believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in see also: In Mein Kampf Hitler expounded his theory of propaganda, which provided a powerful base for his rise to power in Historian Robert Ensor explains that "Hitler In the years following the October Revolution ofthe Soviet government sponsored the Russian film industry with the purpose of making propaganda films e.
The s and s, which saw the rise of totalitarian states and the Second World Warare arguably the "Golden Age of Propaganda". Leni Riefenstahla filmmaker working in Nazi Germanycreated one of the best-known propaganda movies, Triumph of the Will.
In the US, animation became popular, especially for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the U. US war films in the early s were designed to create a patriotic mindset and convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat the Axis Powers.
Smith   about current nazi crimes in occupied Europe and about lies of nazi propaganda. Both sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. During the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro stressed the importance of propaganda.
Propaganda was used to create fear and hatred, and particularly incite the Serb population against the other ethnicities BosniaksCroatsAlbanians and other non-Serbs.
Serb media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during these wars.
Literally translated from the Latin gerundive as "things that must be disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation.
The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. Poster of the 19th-century Scandinavist movement In English, propaganda was originally a neutral term for the dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the 20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative meaning in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify political actions or ideologies.
According to Harold Lasswellthe term began to fall out of favor due to growing public suspicion of propaganda in the wake of its use during World War I by the Creel Committee in the United States and the Ministry of Information in Britain: Writing inLasswell observed, "In democratic countries the official propaganda bureau was looked upon with genuine alarm, for fear that it might be suborned to party and personal ends.
The outcry in the United States against Mr. Creel's famous Bureau of Public Information or 'Inflammation' helped to din into the public mind the fact that propaganda existed. Propaganda has become an epithet of contempt and hate, and the propagandists have sought protective coloration in such names as 'public relations council,' 'specialist in public education,' 'public relations adviser.
Richard Alan Nelson provides a definition of the term: White propaganda openly discloses its source and intent. Grey propaganda has an ambiguous or non-disclosed source or intent.
Black propaganda purports to be published by the enemy or some organization besides its actual origins  compare with black operationa type of clandestine operation in which the identity of the sponsoring government is hidden.
In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda.
For example, opposition to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source. Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed often by an inside sourcemay create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources would undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist supported.
Propaganda poster in North Korea The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actions and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group.
Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling people's minds with approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted with opposing points of view.
What sets propaganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than persuasion and understanding. The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda.
Religious[ edit ] Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on religious issues, particularly during the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches.
More in line with the religious roots of the term, propaganda is also used widely in the debates about new religious movements NRMsboth by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter pejoratively call these NRMs cults. Anti-cult activists and Christian countercult activists accuse the leaders of what they consider cults of using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them.
Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" and the anti-cult movement of making these unusual religious movements look bad without sufficient reasons.If you are searching for a ebook by Dennis L.
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