Defining intelligence essay

Basic terminology[ edit ] "definiens" redirects here.

Defining intelligence essay

Turing's test[ edit ] The "standard interpretation" of the Turing Test, in which the interrogator is tasked with trying to determine which player is a computer and which is a human Main article: Turing test Rather than trying to determine if a machine is thinking, Turing suggests we should ask if the machine can win a game, called the " Imitation Game ".

The original Imitation game that Turing described is a simple party game involving three players. Player A is a man, player B is a woman and player C who plays the role of the interrogator can be of either sex.

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In the Imitation Game, player C is unable to see either player A or player B and knows them only as X and Yand can communicate with them only through written notes or any other form that does not give away any details about their gender.

By asking questions of player Defining intelligence essay and player B, player C tries to determine which of the two is the man and which is the woman.

Player A's role is to trick the interrogator into making the wrong decision, while player B attempts to assist the interrogator in making the right one. Turing proposes a variation of this game that involves the computer: These questions replace our original, 'Can machines think?

The human judge can converse with both the human and the computer by typing into a terminal. Both the computer and human try to convince the judge that they are the human.

Defining intelligence essay

If the judge cannot consistently tell which is which, then the computer wins the game. This question avoids the difficult philosophical problem of pre-defining the verb "to think" and focuses instead on the performance capacities that being able to think makes possible, and how a causal system can generate them.

Some have taken Turing's question to have been "Can a computer, communicating over a teleprinter, fool a person into believing it is human? Turing machine and Church—Turing thesis Turing also notes that we need to determine which "machines" we wish to consider.

He points out that a human clonewhile man-made, would not provide a very interesting example. Turing suggested that we should focus on the capabilities of digital machinery—machines which manipulate the binary digits of 1 and 0, rewriting them into memory using simple rules.

He gave two reasons. First, there is no reason to speculate whether or not they can exist. They already did in Second, digital machinery is "universal".

Turing's research into the foundations of computation had proved that a digital computer can, in theory, simulate the behaviour of any other digital machine, given enough memory and time. This is the essential insight of the Church—Turing thesis and the universal Turing machine. Therefore, if any digital machine can "act like it is thinking" then, every sufficiently powerful digital machine can.

Turing writes, "all digital computers are in a sense equivalent. Turing now restates the original question as "Let us fix our attention on one particular digital computer C. Is it true that by modifying this computer to have an adequate storage, suitably increasing its speed of action, and providing it with an appropriate programme, C can be made to play satisfactorily the part of A in the imitation game, the part of B being taken by a man?

Nine common objections[ edit ] See also: Philosophy of artificial intelligence Having clarified the question, Turing turned to answering it: This states that thinking is a function of man's immortal soul ; therefore, a machine cannot think. Let us hope and believe that they cannot do so.

This objection is a fallacious appeal to consequencesconfusing what should not be with what can or cannot be Wardrip-Fruin, Turing suggests that humans are too often wrong themselves and pleased at the fallibility of a machine.

This argument would be made again by philosopher John Lucas in and physicist Roger Penrose in This argument, suggested by Professor Geoffrey Jefferson in his Lister Oration states that "not until a machine can write a sonnet or compose a concerto because of thoughts and emotions felt, and not by the chance fall of symbols, could we agree that machine equals brain.

He adds, "I do not wish to give the impression that I think there is no mystery about consciousness Turing's reply is now known as the " other minds reply".

See also Can a machine have a mind? These arguments all have the form "a computer will never do X". Turing offers a selection: Be kind, resourceful, beautiful, friendly, have initiative, have a sense of humour, tell right from wrong, make mistakes, fall in love, enjoy strawberries and cream, make someone fall in love with it, learn from experience, use words properly, be the subject of its own thought, have as much diversity of behaviour as a man, do something really new.

Turing notes that "no support is usually offered for these statements," and that they depend on naive assumptions about how versatile machines may be in the future, or are "disguised forms of the argument from consciousness.

Machines cannot make mistakes.Fostering resilience in the face of environmental, socioeconomic, and political uncertainty and risk has captured the attention of academics and decision makers across disciplines, sectors, and scales.

"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence. The paper, published in in Mind, was the first to introduce his concept of what is now known as the Turing test to the general public..

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Turing's paper considers the question "Can machines think?". Library: Member Essays Mahamudra and Dzogchen, Two Systems of Buddhist Yoga. It is now in the present century, that for the first time, the West is finally beginning to learn something in depth about the ancient mystical teachings and practices of Buddhist Yogacara.

Defending America in Cyberspace.

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