The Nature of Matter The subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Because they have the same number of protons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.
In addition, cells will not be able to lose heat fast enough and so may overheat. Therefor the surface area to volume ratio is very important for a cell. Multicellular organisms show emergent properties.
The idea is that the whole is greater than the composition of its parts. For example your lungs are made of many cells. It is the many cells working as a unit that allow the lungs to perform their function. Every cell in a multicellular organisms contains all the genes of that organism.
However, the genes that are activated vary from cell to cell. The reason we have different types of cells in our body the cells in your eyes are not the same as the ones that make up your hair is because different genes are activated in different cells.
For example, the gene that produces keratin will be active in hair and nail cells. Keratin is the protein which makes up hair and nails. This means cells develop in different ways. This is called differentiation. Differentiation depends on gene expression which is regulated mostly during transcription.
It is an advantage for multicellular organisms as cells can differentiate to be more efficient unlike unicellular organisms who have to carry out all of the functions within that one cell.
Adults have stems cells in the tissues in their bodies that need to be frequently replaced such as the skin. Stem cells have the ability to produce a wide range of cells which means that they are pluripotent. They retain their ability to divide and produce many different cells by cell division and the process of differentiation.
For example, one type of stem cells in the bone marrow produce a variety of red and white blood cells. Bone marrow transplants are one of the many therapeutic uses of stem cells.
Stem cells found in the bone marrow give rise to the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the body.
These stem cells can be used in bone marrow transplants to treat people who have certain types of cancer. When a patient has cancer and is given high doses of chemotherapy, the chemotherapy kills the cancer cells but also the normal cells in the bone marrow.
This means that the patient cannot produce blood cells. So before the patient is treated with chemotherapy, he or she can undergo a bone marrow harvest in which stem cells are removed from the bone marrow by using a needle which is inserted into the pelvis hip bone.
Alternatively, if stem cells cannot be used from the patient then they can be harvested from a matching donor.
After the chemotherapy treatment the patient will have a bone marrow transplant in which the stem cells are transplanted back into the patient through a drip, usually via a vein in the chest or the arm.
These transplanted stem cells will then find their way back to the bone marrow and start to produce healthy blood cells in the patient.
Therefore the therapeutic use of stem cells in bone marrow transplants is very important as it allows some patients with cancer to undergo high chemotherapy treatment. Without this therapeutic use of stem cells, patients would only be able to take low doses of chemotherapy which could lower their chances of curing the disease.Learn biology chapters 1 3 with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of biology chapters 1 3 flashcards on Quizlet. BIOL - CHAPTER 1 LECTURE NOTES 2 of 5 3. This permits the formulation of a hypothesis, a testable model that explains the existing observations and makes predictions that can be tested.
4. An experiment is conducted to test the correctness of the hypothesis Experimental or treatment group - the individuals given the specific .
Learn biology review chapter 1 3 with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of biology review chapter 1 3 flashcards on Quizlet. The number of covalent bonds a carbon atom can form with other atoms is.
The Goal of Science 1) deals only with the natural world 2) to collect and organize information 3) propose explanations that can be tested. Science - using evidence to learn about the natural world; a body of knowledge. Science begins with observations.
data - the information gathered from observations quantitative data = numbers qualitative . CHAPTER 3 - MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF CELLS ( diffusion + osmosis + osmosis in plant and animal cells + active transport) Three types of movement: diffusion, osmosis and active transport.
Diffusion only occurs in liquid and gas, and osmosis and active transport happens in liquid only.