An overview of the high and low variety of diglossia

Its pronunciation is, in some respects, common to Southern American Englishwhich is spoken by many African Americans and many non-African Americans in the United States. Several creolists, including William StewartJohn Dillard, and John Rickfordargue that AAVE shares so many characteristics with creole dialects spoken by black people in much of the world that AAVE itself is a creole, [2] while others maintain that there are no significant parallels.

An overview of the high and low variety of diglossia

Ferguson defines diglossia as follows: DIGLOSSIA is a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language which may include a standard or regional standardsthere is a very divergent, highly codified often grammatically more complex superposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any section of the community for ordinary conversation.

An overview of the high and low variety of diglossia

Here, diglossia is seen as a kind of bilingualism in a society in which one of the languages has high prestige henceforth referred to as "H"and another of the languages has low prestige "L".

Joshua Fishman expanded the definition of diglossia to include the use of unrelated languages as high and low varieties. Heinz Kloss calls the H variant exoglossia and the L variant endoglossia. In some cases especially with creole languagesthe nature of the connection between H and L is not one of diglossia but a continuum; for example, Jamaican Creole as L and Standard English as H in Jamaica.

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H is usually the written language whereas L is the spoken language. In formal situations, H is used; in informal situations, L is used. The latter, which is almost completely unattested in text, is the tongue from which the Romance languages descended. The L variants are not just simplifications or "corruptions" of the H variants.

In phonology, for example, L dialects are as likely to have phonemes absent from the H as vice versa. Especially in endoglossia the L form may also be called "basilect", the H form "acrolect", and an intermediate form "mesolect".

Creole is now recognized as a standard language in Haiti. Swiss German dialects are hardly languages with low prestige in Switzerland see Chambers, Sociolinguistic Theory. Nowadays, Katharevousa is with a few exceptions, e. Harold Schiffman writes about Swiss German: In Italy and Germany, those speakers who still speak dialects typically use dialect in informal situations, especially in the family.

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In German-speaking Switzerland, on the other hand, Swiss German dialects are to a certain extent even used in schools and to a larger extent in churches.

Paradoxically, Swiss German offers both the best example of diglossia all speakers are native speakers of Swiss German and thus diglossic and the worst, because there is no clear-cut hierarchy. Read more about this topic: We must widen the range of topics and goals, the types of situations we offer and their degree of structure, the kinds and combinations of resources and materials, and the possible interactions with things, peers, and adults.

They are under an English speaking government and are a part of the territory of an English speaking nation While I appreciated the desirability of maintaining their grasp on the Spanish language, the beauty of that language and the richness of its literature, that as a practical matter for them it was quite necessary to have a good comprehension of English.

There is no greater reassurance of their lovability and worth than to be affectionately touched and held.given speech community have two essentially non-overlapping varieties that can be called H (high) and L (low).

In the case of Arabic, H would be Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), while L would be. Ferguson's description of diglossia in nine rubrics viz. function, prestige, literary heritage, acquisition, standardization, stability, grammar, lexicon, and phonology, showing how the low variety displays some linguistic differences in comparison with the high variety, has been adapted to the diglossic situation of Swahili spoken in Bukavu.

It is a 'different type' not so much because it is different from the Tamil type in the separation of the high and low varieties as because of the choice of an apparent social dialect for high or formal use. Diglossia: A critical overview of the Swiss example acquisition, standardisation, stability, grammar, lexicon, and phonology.!e func-tional linguistic distribution, or the specialisation of function, is the ‘existential’ fea-ture of diglossia.!e original concept provides for two distinct varieties of the same language, the High and the Low. In Ferguson's definition, the high and low variants are always closely related. Joshua Fishman expanded the definition of diglossia to include the use of unrelated languages as high and low varieties. For example, in Alsace the Alsatian language (Elsässisch) serves as (L) and French as (H).

Two distinctive varieties of the same language: High/Standard and Low/Vernacular 2. Unique function of the varieties 3.

List of diglossic regions - Wikipedia

Not using H Variety in everyday conversations. High (H) and Low (L) Varieties "A very significant aspect of diglossia is the different patterns of language acquisition associated with the High [H] and Low [L] dialects. Feb 15,  · In , John Gumperz identified double nested diglossia, where, Hindi H is the formal national language, Khalapur L is a local dialect, each of which has a High and Low variety of its own.

There are low - conversational Hindi and Moti boli Khalapur, and high - Oratorical Hindi and Saf boli Khalapur, varieties within both languages; so . that are appropriate for formal contexts, while the ‘low’ functions are ascribed to dialectal forms employed in the privacy of one’s home (Ferguson / ).


Diglossia in North Africa - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics