Hinduism and Islam, A Comparison of Beliefs and Practices by Jayaram V Islam originated in the desert sands of Arabia as a reaction against prevailing native traditions based on the revelations received by Prophet Muhammad.
Overview[ edit ] The priesthoods of public religion were held by members of the elite classes. There was no principle analogous to separation of church and state in ancient Rome. During the Roman Republic —27 BCthe same men who were elected public officials might also serve as augurs and pontiffs.
Priests married, raised families, and led politically active lives. Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus before he was elected consul. The augurs read the will of the gods and supervised the marking of boundaries as a reflection of universal order, thus sanctioning Roman expansionism as a matter of divine destiny.
The Roman triumph was at its core a religious procession in which the victorious general displayed his piety and his willingness to serve the public good by dedicating a portion of his spoils to the gods, especially Jupiterwho embodied just rule. As a result of the Punic Wars — BCwhen Rome struggled to establish itself as a dominant power, many new temples were built by magistrates in fulfillment of a vow to a deity for assuring their military success.
As the Romans extended their dominance throughout the Mediterranean world, their policy in general was to absorb the deities and cults of other peoples rather than try to eradicate them,  since they believed that preserving tradition promoted social stability.
Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the side-by-side worship of local and Roman deities, including dedications made by Romans to local gods. Foreign religions increasingly attracted devotees among Romans, who increasingly had ancestry from elsewhere in the Empire.
Imported mystery religionswhich offered initiates salvation in the afterlife, were a matter of personal choice for an individual, practiced in addition to carrying on one's family rites and participating in public religion.
The mysteries, however, involved exclusive oaths and secrecy, conditions that conservative Romans viewed with suspicion as characteristic of " magic ", conspiratorial coniuratioor subversive activity.
Sporadic and sometimes brutal attempts were made to suppress religionists who seemed to threaten traditional morality and unity, as with the senate 's efforts to restrict the Bacchanals in BC.
Because Romans had never been obligated to cultivate one god or one cult only, religious tolerance was not an issue in the sense that it is for competing monotheistic systems. In the wake of the Republic's collapsestate religion had adapted to support the new regime of the emperors.
Augustusthe first Roman emperor, justified the novelty of one-man rule with a vast program of religious revivalism and reform.
Public vows formerly made for the security of the republic now were directed at the well-being of the emperor. So-called "emperor worship" expanded on a grand scale the traditional Roman veneration of the ancestral dead and of the Geniusthe divine tutelary of every individual.
The Imperial cult became one of the major ways in which Rome advertised its presence in the provinces and cultivated shared cultural identity and loyalty throughout the Empire. Rejection of the state religion was tantamount to treason. This was the context for Rome's conflict with Christianitywhich Romans variously regarded as a form of atheism and novel superstitio.
Ultimately, Roman polytheism was brought to an end with the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of the empire. Founding myths and divine destiny[ edit ] Relief panel from an altar to Venus and Mars depicting Romulus and Remus suckling the she-wolf, and gods representing Roman topography such as the Tiber and Palatine Hill See also: Roman mythology and Founding of Rome The Roman mythological tradition is particularly rich in historical myths, or legendsconcerning the foundation and rise of the city.
These narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny.
For Rome's earliest period, history and myth are difficult to distinguish. These objects were believed in historical times to remain in the keeping of the VestalsRome's female priesthood.
Aeneas, according to classical authors, had been given refuge by King Evandera Greek exile from Arcadiato whom were attributed other religious foundations: The most common version of the twins' story displays several aspects of hero myth.
Their mother, Rhea Silviahad been ordered by her uncle the king to remain a virgin, in order to preserve the throne he had usurped from her father. Through divine intervention, the rightful line was restored when Rhea Silvia was impregnated by the god Mars.
She gave birth to twins, who were duly exposed by order of the king but saved through a series of miraculous events. Romulus and Remus regained their grandfather's throne and set out to build a new city, consulting with the gods through augurya characteristic religious institution of Rome that is portrayed as existing from earliest times.
The brothers quarrel while building the city walls, and Romulus kills Remus, an act that is sometimes seen as sacrificial. Fratricide thus became an integral part of Rome's founding myth.The purpose of this page.
We do not reject the Qur'an because of this list of contradictions. There are many reasons of much more substantial nature why we do not believe the Qur'an to be from the one . Islam by all means is a religion founded by a prophet. Hinduism, in contrast, is a group of religious traditions, established over a period of time, through the revelations received by innumerable saints, seers, incarnations and emanations of God.
Polytheism, the belief in many nationwidesecretarial.comeism characterizes virtually all religions other than Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which share a common tradition of monotheism, the belief in one God..
Sometimes above the many gods a polytheistic religion will have a supreme creator and focus of devotion, as in certain phases of Hinduism (there is also the tendency to identify the many gods as.
Monotheism Vs. Polytheism; The Problems With One Deity. Essay, Research Paper Monotheism vs. Polytheism; The problems with one Deity.
The philosophical investigation of the nature and grounds of religious beliefs is one of the oldest and most persistent areas of philosophical endeavor. The Big Religion Chart. This "Big Religion Chart" is our attempt to summarize the major religions and belief systems of the world - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and dozens more - into a quick-reference comparison chart.
Monotheism, the worship of one deity (nationwidesecretarial.com), appeals to one type of person, whereas polytheism, the worship of many deities (nationwidesecretarial.com), appeals to another, much like how different music styles appeal to different people.
The Revolutionary War was an enormous part of American history.